Pacifism or self-defense? The backstory behind a famous 1961 debate between two towering civil rights figures.

Pacifism or self-defense? The backstory behind a famous 1961 debate between two towering civil rights figures.

Pacifism or self-defense? The backstory behind a famous 1961 debate between two towering civil rights figures.

The debaters at the Howard University podium that October 1961 day were taking up a question: Should African Americans be against or for segregation? On the anti-side was Bayard Rustin, pacifist Quaker and close adviser to Martin Luther King Jr. On the pro-side was Malcolm X, nationalist minister of the Nation of Islam. That’s when […]