Pacifism or self-defense? The backstory of a famous debate between two towering civil rights figures.

Pacifism or self-defense? The backstory of a famous debate between two towering civil rights figures.

Pacifism or self-defense? The backstory of a famous debate between two towering civil rights figures.



The debaters on the Howard University podium that October 1961 day were taking up a question: Should African Americans be against or for racial separation? On the anti-side was Bayard Rustin, a pacifist Quaker and close adviser to Martin Luther King Jr. On the pro-side was Malcolm X, nationalist minister of the Nation of Islam. […]