Windows 10 includes a variety of methods, referred to as 'Credential Providers,' for logging into user accounts. This includes passwords, Windows Hello (fingerprint/face recognition), and PINs. Microsoft also allows third-party apps to create their own credential providers, and it looks like a future Chrome update will do exactly that.
First, here's a full explanation of what credential providers are, from Microsoft's documentation:
Credential providers are the primary mechanism for user authentication—they currently are the only method for users to prove their identity which is required for logon and other system authentication scenarios.
You'll be able to log into Windows using your Google account (eventually) was written by the awesome team at Android Police.